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Racisme et art aux États-Unis
Feminisms and Other Engagements
11.01.2018 | Camille Duhautbout

Ellen Gallagher, Wiglette from DeLuxe, 2004, photogravure and plasticine, 33 x 26.6 cm each, 13 x 10 1/2 in. each, Courtesy Gagosian Gallery

The notion of identity is one that is constantly questioned and apprehended by artists, as they seek to depict a history of divisions in order to make it theirs, especially in the United States, where women artists use their art to raise awareness and denounce the oppression of non-white people. The sculptor Augusta Savage paved the way in the early 20th century by becoming the first African-American to question racial prejudice in the art world after having been excluded from a study programme in France because of her skin colour. The racism endured day after day, with more or less intensity depending on the context and period, became a subject frequently addressed by 20th-century artists, using a variety of mediums. It became a central element in the works of many artists such as Ellen Gallagher, who challenged racial archetypes with her piece Pomp-Bang (2003), which juxtaposed “pictures drawn from magazine advertisements for skin-lightening creams and hair relaxing products”. Kara Walker creates vast murals depicting silhouettes that describe the everyday lives of an exploited, enslaved black population and of a hypersexualised black woman in Slavery! Slavery! Presenting a GRAND and LIFELIKE Panoramic Journey into Picturesque Southern Slavery or “Life at ‘Ol’ Virginny’s Hole” (sketches from Plantation Life) (2008). Some African-American or native Americans women artists distance themselves from any forms of taboo and backbiting, instead using their art to express and question their identity and history.

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1965 | United States
Ellen Gallagher - AWARE

Ellen Gallagher

1948 | United States
Adrian Piper - AWARE

Adrian Piper

1892 — 1962 | United States
Augusta Savage - AWARE

Augusta Savage

1969 | United States
Kara Walker - AWARE

Kara Walker

1985 | United States
Guerrilla Girls - AWARE

Guerrilla Girls

1915 — United States | 2012 — Mexico
Elizabeth Catlett - AWARE

Elizabeth Catlett

1943 | United States
Howardena  Pindell - AWARE

Howardena Pindell

1940 | United States
Jaune Quick-to-See  Smith - AWARE

Jaune Quick-to-See Smith

1900 — 1995 | United States
Selma Hortense  Burke - AWARE

Selma Hortense Burke

1905 — 1998 | United States
Lois Mailou Jones - AWARE

Lois Mailou Jones

1934 | United States 

Lorraine O’Grady - AWARE

Lorraine O’Grady

1891 — 1978 | United States
Alma Woodsey Thomas - AWARE

Alma Woodsey Thomas

1959 — 2018 | United States
Laura  Aguilar - AWARE

Laura Aguilar

1940 — 1985 | Korea
Wook-kyung Choi - AWARE

Wook-kyung Choi

1926 | United States
Betye Saar - AWARE

Betye Saar

1937 — 2020 | United States 

Emma Amos - AWARE

Emma Amos

1962 | United-Kingdom
Sonia Boyce - AWARE

Sonia Boyce

1953 | United States
Carrie Mae Weems - AWARE

Carrie Mae Weems

1971 | United States
Mickalene Thomas - AWARE

Mickalene Thomas

1954 | Taiwan
Shu Lea Cheang - AWARE

Shu Lea Cheang

1834 — 1910 | United States
Harriet Powers - AWARE

Harriet Powers

1948 | United States
Joyce J. Scott - AWARE

Joyce J. Scott

1960 | United States
Lorna Simpson - AWARE

Lorna Simpson

1948 | United States
Deborah Willis - AWARE

Deborah Willis

1844 — United States | 1907 —
Mary Edmonia « Wildfire » Lewis - AWARE

Mary Edmonia « Wildfire » Lewis

1950 | United States
Ming Smith - AWARE

Ming Smith

1967 | United States
Simone Leigh - AWARE

Simone Leigh

1882 — 1934 | United States
Doris Ulmann - AWARE

Doris Ulmann

1895 — 1965 | United States
Dorothea Lange - AWARE

Dorothea Lange

1941 | United Kingdom
Sue Williamson - AWARE

Sue Williamson

1885 — 1966 | United States
Malvina  Hoffman - AWARE

Malvina Hoffman

1961 | South Africa
Jo Ractliffe - AWARE

Jo Ractliffe

1877 — 1968 | United States
Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller - AWARE

Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller

1909 — 2003 | United States
Ruth G. Waddy - AWARE

Ruth G. Waddy

1958 | United States
Renee Stout - AWARE

Renee Stout

1870 — 1919 | United States
Angel De Cora - AWARE

Angel De Cora

1967 | United States
Marie Watt - AWARE

Marie Watt

1945 | United States
Jean LaMarr - AWARE

Jean LaMarr

1924 — Haiti | 1994 — France
Luce Turnier - AWARE

Luce Turnier

1938 — 2015 | Uruguay
Nelbia Romero - AWARE

Nelbia Romero

1969 | United States
Nao Bustamante - AWARE

Nao Bustamante

1953 | South Korea
Yong Soon Min - AWARE

Yong Soon Min

1951 — South Korea | 1982 — United States
Theresa Hak Kyung Cha - AWARE

Theresa Hak Kyung Cha

1954 | United States
Hulleah J. Tsinhnahjinnie - AWARE

Hulleah J. Tsinhnahjinnie

1960 | United States
Coco Fusco - AWARE

Coco Fusco

1931 — 1986 | Nicaragua
June Beer - AWARE

June Beer

1899 — Netherlands | 1984 — Surinam
Nola Hatterman - AWARE

Nola Hatterman

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